Saturday, February 22, 2020
Fashion image class - Assignment Example Design isnt characterized singularly by our garments decisions, yet is likewise passed on through the way we convey ourselves, our identities and our perspectives of the world. At its most major (and straight from the word reference), design is basically the predominating style or custom, as in dress or conduct. Thinking about my customer inclination the extent that mould recognition is of concern, my customer needs to turn into a performing artist; it has arrived at my consideration that his wardrobe obliges uncommon. My customer who is called Salem needs to turn into an on-screen character in spite of the fact that according to now he is still a scholar. Considering apparel identity my customer Salim, wardrobe choices enlighten others regarding the mystery craves that we are attempting to cover up. Moreover, Salim is short and thin in that his somatotype is described by, a high temple, retreating jaw, slender shoulders and hips, a limited midsection and midriff and meager arms and legs. An overwhelmingly ectomorphic distinct is long, slim and dainty, and thusly power and quality games are maybe not suitable as their slight form abandons them powerless to wounds (Andre, 12-20). My customer inclines toward dark and dainty clothing types, something that has given challenges while picking inclination of his colors because of the way that there is a constraint. Remembering that he enjoys feasting, voyaging, galleries and listening music, he obliges a wardrobe that is portrayed by big name life and
Thursday, February 6, 2020
Family & Parenting - Essay Example Applied to humans, emotions and the attachment relationships are sought more than biological needs. Meredith Small reports that mothers are biologically predisposed to care for their infants. Nine long months in the womb, the fetus affects the mother and its dependence on her likewise affects her. For example, a stressed mother can hinder the normal brain processes of brain masculinization of her unborn child. T. Berry Brazelton, a prominent child psychologist claims, in a good interaction mother and baby synchronize with each other from the beginning, and that the pathways may be set up in intrauterine life ready to be entrained, especially by the mothers, immediately after birth" I agree with Harriet Smith when she claims that whatever the biological forces, parenting style is more influenced by other factors. Inexperienced mothers may not necessarily know how to care for their newborn infants automatically, but can learn it from observation of other mothers caring for their young. This gives hope to parents who doubt their parenting skills as inadequate. Cases of adoptive mothers or caregivers other than the birth mother developing an attachment to the infant are widespread. It just proves that an infant may be responsive to, and form attachments to persons who provide him with all his needs. Biological connections between mother and child if present at birth may or may not be sustained. If mothers and infants are physically distanced, then this connection is disrupted. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being is dependent on secure attachments combined with basic competencies in parenting like reading a babyÃ¢â¬â¢s signals for food, comfort, need to be held or worse, need for medical intervention. Biological studies indicate that when human babies are born, their brains are underdeveloped, hence are Ã¢â¬Å"born highly dependent and inconstant need of care.Ã¢â¬ Unlike other mammals like horses
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Eminem Essay Eminem was married in his 20Ã¢â¬â¢s this was predictable because he had a stable girlfriend and was engaged therefore this led to marriage. The marriage stage in EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s life was the good moments; it was like his life was on track finally. Eminem and Kim had a child together called Hailey. She was a bridesmaid at their wedding. This had a big effect on EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s life because Hailey is his number one person. He loves her to pieces, he talks a lot about her in his music, and he expresses his upbringing to the world. This shows how the marriage and having a child affected him physically because now his expressing the good vibes in his music, itÃ¢â¬â¢s something that he is happy about. This affected him intellectually because his daughter is constantly on his mind hence why he made a song about her. His song Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Hailies SongÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ expresses a lot of his life and how much she has an effect on him, he seems to think that he is wasting his time throughout his life and he feels like the world is on his shoulders. His daughter gives him that little wakeup call that tells him that his life isnÃ¢â¬â¢t all that bad because he loves seeing her grow up. This shows how important Kim and Hailie are to him. Unfortunately he gets divorced with Kim and obviously this wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t predictable but it hurts him to think about the divorce and he actually feels like he wants to give up. This has an effect on his development because this could affect his future, when he meets someone new he is going to have doubts and be overprotective with his daughter and weary about who is getting himself involved with. He tried to make it work with Kim but it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as easy as he thought. Moving Homes Eminem was moving homes nearly every 3 months due to his home life being un stable with his mum, they never had a lot of money therefore he was forced to leave school in year 9. He had to start providing for his daughter and also his mum, he had to get a job and make his music his dream. He did it, he talks about it all in his songs; this shows the effect on his development because although he had no help from anyone else he made it, he had the confidence to get out there and make his dream. This must have been extremely hard for him because his mum was an alcoholic, they lived in a trailer. He used to get bullied in school due to not having the things that everyone had due to the lack of income. He had to build his bridge and get over the bad things and try moving himself onto the good things. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s like he was forced to give up his education because of how important it was for him to start proving himself. This affected him physically because everyone can see the way he is growing up in this bad way; this could have affected his confidence leading him to feel embarrassed, this situation affected him intellectually because his mind was partly damaged because he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t sure how to get out of the situation he was in this lead to confusion. Confusion affects a person emotionally because they are aggravated about what to do, people become restless. EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s social life would have been affected by this because he was being judged and looked down on because no one liked him, he found it hard to get close to people and trust people this would have affected his relationship with people his own age. He never had the things that everyone else had, he never had a nice car and nice clothes unlike the others therefore he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t compare to them. This is a predictable life stage because Eminem and his Mum never had much money; his mum was unable to pay rent therefore the time that she could stay at a house or trailer was limited. She was a drug taker therefore she could have had drug dealers after her for money. By putting EminemÃ¢â¬â¢s upbringing into perspective moving house is predictable because it is band to happen. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s impossible for a single parent who is on drugs and an alcoholic to not only bring up a child but to manage their low income, afford food and also pay for drugs within such a limited income span. Drugs and alcohol was clearly more important to his mum hence why she couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t pay her rent. Where this ituation was on going once Eminem had moved houses a few times he probably got used to the routine of moving house and because isolated or separated from old friends. It was a situation that he had no way of adapting to because he was never settled. Eminem getting scouted Ã¢â¬â Eminem got himself into a show at the Olympics, this is where he got scouted by Dre, Dre got him signed and helped him to make the success of his life. This had an impact on him because he is finally l iving his dream; the good has finally come out of all the bad things and the struggle that he has been through. He can now afford to provide for him, his mum and his daughter. He must have had enough of providing for his mum and he left home, it hurt him to leave home so much that he thought he would express it to the world. He expresses his life in his music, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why everyone loves him because his truthful. His music is deep; when Eminem moved out he made a song called Ã¢â¬ËCleaning out my closetÃ¢â¬â¢ He explains to his mum that he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean to hurt her, he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t deal with all the commotion and emotion. He explains that people can trigger him but theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll never figure him out. The reason for this is because his been through so much that no one will never understand the full reasons, they can have their opinion but they donÃ¢â¬â¢t know the truth. This has an effect on his life because people used to doubt him and thing that he was stupid do to him living in a trailer. They were fake people, they never understood him. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to hurt his mum but he needed to leave. This had an effect on his development because he had to get his own house, bring up his daughter and escape from the misery that he was stuck in with his mum. This also gives him freedom to be able to cope without all of the stress loaded on top of him. To conclude all this up, Eminem started off leaving school and moving every 3 months due to his life being unstable because of his mum was on a low income. This lead for him to leave school and get a job to provide for him and his mum, he left school and got scouted at the Olympics by Dre, this is how he got his job. He got his life on track; he had a child and then moved out away from the stress. He had confidence in his self when no one else did. He is where he wanted to be, he was determined to win it and he did. This affected him physically because he can now afford to provide for himself and his daughter, heÃ¢â¬â¢s dress sense is more fashionable because he can afford to pay for these nice things. It would have affected him intellectually because his thoughts have changed; the tables in his life have turned because he is living his dream. Therefore the way he thinks will become more positive due to things falling into place and becoming more real. It would have affected him emotionally but in a good way, he is proud to know that he put in the effort himself, he was determined to win it and he was successful. You need to go through some bad to get the good; He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have to be insecure about anything because he achieved what he wanted. When it comes too socially, his dream would affect him in a positive way because he had fans; thousands of people want to meet him. His fans are crazy for him, this built him a relationship with others because although the years that he has wasted and the tears that he has tasted nothing can take it from him. People have begun to love him for whom he is. This life situation was unpredictable because no one ever expected for Eminem to turn out the way he has, he went through such a bad stage as a child that he lost hope in everything. Until he tried something new; he started to go to shows and this is where he was found. He never knew that he would get scouted and became famous it was all a dream to him that came true.
Monday, January 20, 2020
A Mother's Dream for her Daughter in Amy Tan's Two Kinds Amy Tan's short story, "Two Kinds" begins with a brief introduction to one mother's interpretation of the American dream. The Chinese mother who lost her family in her native homeland now hopes to recapture part of her loss through her daughter. Those of us who are parents want what is best for our children. We strive to make our children's futures better. In some cases, when our own dreams have either been destroyed or not realized, we project our dreams and wishes on our children. In "Two Kinds", Amy Tan tells of such a story through the eyes of a young girl who initially mimics her mother's dreams but ultimately rebels against them. Tan's use of a common theme that most parents can relate to expresses the frustrations that parents and children feel when obsession takes the place of nurturing. In the beginning the young girl, Ni Kan is "just as excited" as her mother about the idea of becoming a prodigy (528). She imagines herself in different roles and believes that once she has achieved her status as a prodigy, her mother and father will adore her and she will "become perfect" (528). Ni Kan may feel that she will not be loved completely by her parents if she does not achieve the status her mother has set for her. It is natural for any young child to want to please a parent that has taken special interest in them. Ni Kan feels that her "prodigy side" is saying to her, "If you don't hurry up and get me out of here, I'm disappearing for good" (528). This may indicate that Ni Kan is becoming impatient about becoming a prodigy and she fears that if it does not happen soon she will "always be nothing" in her mother's eyes (528). Tan reinforces this feeling in the story... ...aughter. In the story, Ni Kan stated that, "It was enough that she had offered it to me" and that it had made her "feel proud, as if it were a trophy I had won back" (535). The author also seems to use a piece of music to reflect how Ni Kan has felt about the conflict with her mother. After the death of her mother, Ni Kan looks through the music at the piano. She finds two pieces of music opposite each other in the book. The first piece is "Pleading Child" and the second is "Perfectly contented". These two titles suggest the emotions of Ni Kan as a child and her emotions now as an adult. These emotions are symbolically brought together when Ni Kan realizes "they were two halves of the same song" (535). Works Cited: Tan, Amy. "Two Kinds". Literature, Reading Reacting,Writing. 5th ed. Ed. Laurie G. Kirszner and Stephen R. Mandell. Boston: Heinle, 2004. 527-535.
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Ã¢â¬ËThe group constituted an open air society, a communal gathering which had great importance socially, culturally and economically. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â During each nightly meeting the young worker, once fully integrated, listened, questioned, argued and received unawares an informal education..' (Roberts in Smith, 1998:24). Describing his experience of street groups in the early part of the 20th century, Roberts uses the term Ã¢â¬Ëinformal education' to describe the accidental learning that took place as a direct result of the interaction between young working men. But can what we call Ã¢â¬Ëinformal education' in the 21st century be described as accidental? Mark Smith argues that whilst: Ã¢â¬ËLearning may at first seem to be incidental it is not necessarily accidental; actions are taken with some purpose. The specific goal may not be clear at any one time Ã¢â¬â yet the process is deliberate.' (Smith, 1994:63). Throughout this assignment I shall be exploring the term Ã¢â¬Ëinformal education', examining its origins and meanings, its purpose and practice. Using historical information to examine the early roots of present day youth work, I shall asking whether anything has really changed in the past 150 years by exploring the issues that I face in my day to day practice as a youth and community worker. In 1755 Jean Jacques Rousseau published his work Ã¢â¬ËA Discourse on Inequality' and argued that as civilisations grew, they corrupted: Ã¢â¬ËMans natural happiness and freedom by creating artificial inequalities of wealth, power and social privilege' (Smith, 2001, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm) In 1801 Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi published How Gertrude Teaches Her Children. Like Rousseau, Pestalozzi was concerned with social justice and he sought to work with those he considered to be adversely affected by social conditions, seeing in education an opportunity for improvement. (Smith, 2001). In the first half of the 20th century John Dewey published three books that built on the earlier work of educationalists like Rousseau and Pestalozzi. These works heavily influenced the development of informal education as we know it today since they: Ã¢â¬ËIncluded a concern with democracy and community; with cultivating reflection and thinking; with attending to experience and the environment.' (Smith, 2001, www.infed.org/thinkers/et-hist.htm#theory). In 1946 Josephine Macalister Brew's book Informal Education: Adventures and Reflections, brought informal education into the realm of youth work. This was followed in 1966 by The Social Education of the Adolescent by Bernard Davies and Alan Gibson. Since then there have been numerous works on the subject of informal education, most notably, in relation to youth work, those of Tony Jeffs and Mark Smith. So what exactly is informal education? Like many terms in use today, it is widely used to describe an enormous variety of settings and activities. In 1960 the Albermarle Report used it to describe youth work provision as: Ã¢â¬ËThe continued social and informal education of young people in terms most likely to bring them to maturity'. (in Smith, 1988:124). Houle (1980) favoured the experiential definition of informal education describing it as Ã¢â¬Ëeducation that occurs as a result of direct participation in the events of life' (In Smith, 1988:130), whilst Mark Smith said Ã¢â¬Ëone way of thinking about informal education is as the informed use of the everyday in order to enable learning' (Smith, 1988:130). In 2001 Smith went further, describing informal education that: Ã¢â¬Ë* works through and is driven by conversation * involves exploring and enlarging experience * can take place in any setting' (Smith, 2001, www.infed.org/i-intro.htm) And of its purpose: Ã¢â¬ËAt one level, the purpose of informal education is no different to any other form of education. In one situation we may focus on, say, healthy eating, in another family relationships. However, running through all this is a concern to build the sorts of communities and relationships in which people can be happy and fulfilled.' (Smith, 2001, www.infed.org/i-intro.htm). Whilst I would agree with Mark Smiths definition of informal education there is and has been an enormous diversity of opinions, theories and explanations of exactly what sort of community we need for people to be happy and fulfilled. Smith's assertion that the role of informal educators is to work towards all people being able to share a Ã¢â¬Ëcommon life' with an emphasis on: Ã¢â¬ËWork for the well-being of all, respect the unique value and dignity of each human being, dialogue, equality and justice, democracy and the active involvement of people in the issues that affect their lives' (Smith, 2001, http://www.infed.org/i-intro.htm) involves a commitment to anti-oppressive practice that is expounded in much of the literature surrounding the field of informal education. But this has not always been the case and can we hand on heart honestly lay claim to practicing liberating education in our work today? Whilst Rousseau, Pestalozzi and Dewey all identified structural inequalities and believed that Ã¢â¬Ëeducation is the fundamental method of social progress and reform' (Dewey in Smith, 2001, www.infed.org/archives/e-texts/e-dew-pc.htm) the application of their theories were not always applied to the work of those who first began providing services for young people. Indeed early ventures into the field of youth work are often seen as controlling not liberating and as overtly oppressive instead of anti-oppressive. Ã¢â¬ËThe early youth service history in both England and Wales has been described Ã¢â¬â as a time when work with young people was characterised by both appalling social and employment conditions and by rapid social and political change caused by the development of an industrialised urban society' (Jones & Rose, 2001:27) It is within this context that intervention by middle class societies and organisations in the 1800's was seen to be necessary in order to rescue, control and/or rehabilitate young, working class people. Concern over the working conditions of children and young people brought into being an array of groups, clubs and educational services and policies designed to rescue and protect young people from the worst excesses of employment practices and the failure of working class parents to provide a suitable and controlled home life. Ã¢â¬ËWorking class adolescents were thought to be most likely to display delinquent and rebellious characteristics Ã¢â¬â because it was widely assumed that working class parents exercised inadequate control over brutal adolescent instincts' (Humphries 1981 in Smith, 1988:9) This moral underclass discourse lays the blame for social inequalities, poverty and disaffection solely on the shoulders of the working class themselves because: Ã¢â¬ËThe problems faced are then seen not so much as structural but as personal. The central deficit is often portrayed as emotional or moral' (Smith, 1988:56). And it also suggests that: Ã¢â¬ËTheir behaviour, without coercion and control, will mean that they will remain unable to join the included majority' (Payne, 2001: handout) By the end of the 19th century, compulsory education and a growing number of welfare statutes meant that youth workers focus shifted from welfare and rescue to a concern with the moral character of young people which was underpinned by the growing influence of Victorian family ideology. Ã¢â¬ËThe Victorian middle class had very definite ideas about the ideal family and the desirability of imposing such an ideal upon the whole of society.' (Finnegan, 1999:129) This was: Ã¢â¬ËNot just a family ideology but also a gender ideology. It was a careful and deliberate attempt to reorganise the relations between the sexes according to middle-class ways and values and then define the outcome as somehow being natural' (Smith, 1988:4) Thompson says of this view: Ã¢â¬ËTo describe, for example, the traditional male role of breadwinner as Ã¢â¬Ënatural' adds a false, pseudo-biological air of legitimacy.' (Thomspon, 2001:28) This was at a time when the Ã¢â¬Ëdiscovery' of adolescence by Hall and Slaughter and a biologically determined explanation of human behaviour meant that: Ã¢â¬ËThose who saw it as their duty or job to intervene in the lives of young people, now had a suitable vocabulary of scientific terms with which to carry forward their intentions' (Smith, 1988:9) The Biological determination of human behaviour further justified differentiated gender roles within the family as well as creating an: Ã¢â¬ËIdeology of adolescence marked out (by) a biologically determined norm of youthful behaviour and appearance which was white/anglo, middle class, heterosexual, able bodied male' (Griffin, 1993:18) However, just as family ideology was a driving force in determining social relations at the beginning of the twentieth century; it is just as powerful here in the twenty-first. Roche & Tucker say that: Ã¢â¬ËIt is through the use of the representations (discursive messages and images) contained within Ã¢â¬Ëfamily ideology' that social policies and educational and welfare arrangements are constructed and maintained.' (Roche & Tucker 2001:94) Gittins agreed: Ã¢â¬ËFamily ideology has been a vital means Ã¢â¬â the vital means Ã¢â¬â of holding together and legitimising the existing social, economic, political and gender systems.' (Gittins in Roche & Tucker 2001:94) This is significant if Driver and Martell are correct in asserting that present day Ã¢â¬ËLabour increasingly favours conditional, morally prescriptive, conservative and individual communitarianisms' (Driver & Martell, 1997:27) which Etzioni believed would right the social problems of today that are attributable to the Ã¢â¬Ëfailure of people to exercise social and moral responsibility' (Etzioni in Henderson & Salmon, 1988:22). Etzioni emphasised the role of the traditional nuclear family in inculcating in children the right moral standards and he described communitarianism saying: Ã¢â¬ËCommunitarians Ã¢â¬â call for a peer marriage of two parents committed to one another and their children' (Etzioni in Henderson & Salmon, 1988:22) Like the Victorians, present day government can be seen as equally keen to legislate into being their ideology of the nuclear family through the use of stricter divorce laws and punitive measures imposed on single parents. The decision to cut lone parent premiums from income support and child benefit in 1998 are examples of a willingness to impose their ideology on society as a whole despite the fact that what they are proposing as Ã¢â¬Ënormal' or Ã¢â¬Ënatural' is not bourn out statistically. Ã¢â¬ËThe ideological norm of the nuclear family is often presented as if it were a statistical norm whereas, in fact, only 23% of households follow the nuclear family pattern of biological parents with their dependent children.' (Thompson, 2001:28) Michael Anderson also points out that despite the belief that the traditional family has only recently become fragmented, marital break up was a regular feature of 19th century Britain and is not peculiar to the 20th century. Comparing marital dissolution caused by death in 1826 and by death and divorce in 1980, Anderson concluded that: Ã¢â¬ËThe problem of marital break-up is not then new Ã¢â¬â (it) was clearly, statistically, an equally or even more serious problem' (Anderson in Drake, 1994:73) However, this desire and determination to bring about a particular kind of society influenced by a set of morals and ideals is reminiscent of Mark Smiths definition of the purpose of informal education as: Ã¢â¬ËA concern to build the sorts of communities and relationships in which people can be happy and fulfilled.' (Smith, 2001, www.infed.org/i-intro.htm). The only real difference lies in the definition of what makes for community fulfilment and happiness. Smith says that informal education: Ã¢â¬ËInvolves setting out with the intention of fostering learning. It entails influencing the environment and is based on a commitment to certain values..' (Smith, 1999:19). It would not be difficult to describe the efforts of the middle class in the 19th century in such a way although with our 21st century eyes we now believe we can read the intended control and oppression of working class communities behind their ideals. But in the 21st century are we actually doing much better? If our suspicions concerning the intentionality behind the actions of Victorian middle class youth workers are correct, can we say our own intentionality is any purer? If intentionality can be understood as power as defined by Bertrand Russell when he says that power is the Ã¢â¬Ëproduction of intended effects' (in Jeffs & Smith, 1990:5), we could be accused of wielding power in order to create the sorts of communities and relationships in which people can be happy and fulfilled' (Smith, 2001, www.infed.org/i-intro.htm), according to our own philosophies, beliefs and current hegemonic principles, in much the same way that we accuse the middle class philanthropists of the 19th century. Is the ability to wield power to effect change in the lives of others conducive with a practice that has at its heart a commitment to anti-discriminatory practice which: Ã¢â¬ËMeans recognising power imbalances and working towards the promotion of change to redress the balance of power' (Dalrympole & Burke, 2000:15). As professional workers we can also be considered middle class? All of which begs the question, have we more in common with our predecessors than we like to think? It is certainly possible that they too thought they were operating with the same Ã¢â¬Ëmoral authority' that Jeffs & Smith describe as part of an informal educators role in: Ã¢â¬ËBeing seen by others as people with integrity, wisdom and an understanding of right and wrong' (Jeffs & Smith, 1999:85) Especially in their desire to provide a Ã¢â¬Ëstrong guiding influence to lead them (young people) onward and upward socially and morally' (Sweatman, 1863 in Smith, 1988:12). No doubt they would also have agreed with Kerry Young's description of youth work as supporting Ã¢â¬Ëyoung people's moral deliberations and learning' (Young in Banks, 1999:89). But early youth workers cannot be described as concerned with equality and anti-oppressive practice. On the contrary, their work was: Ã¢â¬ËContained within particular class, gender, racial and age structures: a woman's place was in the home, to be British was to be best, betters were to be honoured and youth had to earn its advancement and wait its turn' (Smith, 1988:19) This made life extremely difficult for anyone who did not fit the stereotypical image of British youth. Tolerance and respect for other races and religious systems was not a feature of informal education and, for example, the estimated 100,000 Jewish immigrants that arrived in Britain between 1840 and 1914 had great difficulty: Ã¢â¬ËMaintaining a distinctive culture in a climate of oppression and restriction Ã¢â¬â (coupled with) pressures Ã¢â¬â to acculturate to middle-class norms' (Pryce, 2001:82) So what of my practice, of my intentionality? Do I operate from a moral underclass ideology that blames homeless young people for their situation or do I work from a redistributive discourse that sees the issue of poverty as central to the exclusion these young people experience? Can what I do in my day to day practice be termed informal education? Am I concerned with oppression and anti-oppressive practice? Much of what I and Nightstop as an agency do in our work involves enabling young people to live within a system that is discriminatory, unfair and biased towards a particular form of family ideology that suggests that young people should remain dependent on their parents until financially independent or aged 25 which means that they are entitled to lower rates of benefit. Even those young people who work find themselves living on lower wages than their older colleagues. Christine Griffin argued that the discovery of adolescence: Ã¢â¬ËEmerged primarily as a consequence of changes in class relations as expanding capitalist economies demanded a cheap and youthful labour force' (Griffin in Roche & Tucker, 2001:18) Even today the notion that young people deserve less pay than their elders finds voice in the policies of the minimum wage which offers no restriction on wages for 16/17 year olds and a lower rate for those aged 18-22. Our continued involvement in teaching them to budget their reduced incomes could easily be described as an expression of an ideology that believes that it is the lack of skills these young people have that cause them difficulties in surviving the benefit and pay systems rather than a belief in the failure of the systems to provide adequate means of survival. And if this was all that we do we could not be described as informal educators if part of the formulae for informal education involves: Ã¢â¬ËEquality and justice, democracy and the active involvement of people in the issues that affect their lives' (Smith, 2001, http://www.infed.org/i-intro.htm) However, whilst enabling young people to develop the skills necessary to live independently we also encourage them to question the inequalities they face and the ideologies underpinning them. By engaging young people in conversation, which Jeffs and Smith say is Ã¢â¬Ëcentral to our work as informal educators' (Jeffs & Smith, 1999:21), and asking Ã¢â¬Ëis that fair' and Ã¢â¬Ëwhy do you think that is' we encourage them to question things they take for granted as normal and natural and involve them in what Freire described as Ã¢â¬Ëproblem-posing' education which encourages people to critically examine the world so they may: Ã¢â¬ËPerceive the reality of oppression, not as a closed world from which there is no exit, but as a limiting situation which they can transform' (Freire, 1993:31). I do not believe the same can be said for the work of early youth workers and much of the work they undertook can be understood as designed to maintain the status quo, to silence the witnesses to oppressive regimes and to control the masses that were beginning to organise themselves via the emergence of trade unions. Emile Durkheim described this type of education as Ã¢â¬Ësimply the means by which society prepares, in its children, the essential conditions of its own existence' (Giddens, 1972:203), which can be understood as a form of social control. ` The process which enforces values and maintains order is termed social control` (Hoghughi, 1983 in Hart, 2001, youthworkcentral.tripod.com/sean1.htm) Again the question arises, as informal educators in the 21st century are we doing much better? Sean Hart believes we may not. Social control within a context of community work may be regarded as a process of continuity. Indeed much community work, especially that of those with right wing political ideology, involves self-help and making the best of what you have. Thus, it could be argued that this kind of work reinforces the current hegemony and deflects from attempts to challenge the oppression it creates. (Hart, 2001, youthworkcentral.tripod.com/sean1.htm) The difficulty in this for my work is that the young people with whom I work must learn to make the best of what they have and the daily grind of finding enough to eat means that they have little energy left for dismantling oppressive regimes. As Friere said: Ã¢â¬ËOne of the gravest obstacles to the achievement of liberation is that oppressive reality absorbs those within it and thereby acts to submerge human beings consciousness' (Freire, 1993:33). And as they struggle with meeting their most basic of needs I sometimes find it difficult to justify my continuing commitment to educate them about inequality when their overwhelming deprivation is viewed from my comfortable, middle class life style. The inescapable ethical dilemma is very clear since their need pays for and justifies my existence as the manager of Nightstop. As Mark Smith says the welfare professions: Ã¢â¬ËProvide a rich source of desirable jobs Ã¢â¬â for members of elite and middle class groups where such groups can enjoy varying degrees of power, privilege and freedom in their work' (Smith, 1988:58). And I certainly do have power, not only within my own organisation but within local government departments who actively seek my input on the development of services for homeless young people. But in order to ensure that I do not Ã¢â¬Ëhelp to maintain the system which supports (me)' (Smith, 1988:58) I now encourage those systems to interact directly with the young people for whom services are being designed at the same time as encouraging young people themselves to play an active part in service development by helping them develop their social intelligence. This can be described as: Ã¢â¬ËAn understanding of social rules which govern our interactions and an ability to follow or manipulate these to achieve our ends.' (Graham in Hunter, 2001:75). and although this means that I favour David Clarks model of community Ã¢â¬Ëas a collection of social systems and of individuals in community as affected by different systems' (Hunter, 2001:20) and of community development as Ã¢â¬Ëopening systems up to each other' (Hunter, 2001:112) this does not fit with Freire's view that: Ã¢â¬ËThe solution is not to Ã¢â¬Å"integrateÃ¢â¬ them into the structure of oppression but to transform that structure so that they can become Ã¢â¬Å"beings for themselves' (Freire, 1996:55). However, I also believe that young people themselves have the ability to transform the structure by virtue of their active involvement within it since I do not see young people as incapable of making a vital and valuable contribution to their communities. In this I seek to avoid the accusation that I have a Ã¢â¬Ëlack of confidence in the people's ability to think, to want and to know' (Freire, 1996:42). The same cannot be said of the youth workers in the early 20th century who felt it necessary to improve young people but without the welfare and rescue focus found it necessary to have other ways of encouraging young people to attend. This was resolved in so far as young people were to be attracted by leisure opportunities whilst support from the ruling classes could be enlisted via the aims of moral improvement so close to their heart. Baden-Powell's identification of citizenship as an answer to problematic youth in 1907 enabled him to offer up scouting and its emphasis on: Ã¢â¬ËObservation and deduction, chivalry, patriotism, self-sacrifice, personal hygiene, saving life, self-reliance, etc' (Jeal, 1995:382) Claiming this would produce a new generation of young people who would fit more closely the ideals sought. In other words he described his practice in terms likely to fit the dominant ideology of the day in order to secure the support he needed to continue the work. Again reminiscent of today since: Ã¢â¬ËAttempts to attract changing sources of funding have usually been accompanied by promises to elicit from young people whatever behaviour was required by the particular funding body' (Young in Banks, 1999:78). I encounter the dilemma between the needs of my organisation for funding and the desire to end the stereotypical classification of homeless young people on a regular basis as I am frequently required to describe homeless young people in terms that are labelling and oppressive in order to meet the criteria and therefore the ideology of funders which suggests that young people should be capable of independent adult life but whose efforts are actually Ã¢â¬Ë consistently thwarted by (their) relegation to the status of a dependent underclass' (Henderson & Salmon, 1988:30). The new youth service of 1900s found that: Ã¢â¬ËWhile clubs have exploited the need for recreation among working class adolescents, and combined this with their being vehicles for a conservative ideology, they did not necessarily attract large numbers' (White early 1900's in Smith, 1988:14). Concern with the numbers of young people attending youth provision is no less today than it was then. The continued need of sponsors, whether statutory or voluntary, for statistical information concerning the use of facilities and opportunities, means that we are ever pushed towards quantifying our work for evaluation purposes instead of concentrating on the quality of provision. Mark Smith says that: Ã¢â¬ËPart of the reason for the failure to attract working class young people lies in the tension between social provision and improving aims' (Smith, 1988:14) and although he was describing the dilemmas of early youth workers I believe this is also present today. If informal education has purpose then it cannot be anything other than improving, even Jeffs and Smith say that informal education works to the Ã¢â¬Ëbetterment of individuals, groups and communities' (Jeffs & Smith, 1999:83). And if we are not honest and open about our improving aims, can young people be said to be participating voluntarily from a position of informed consent? The need to Ã¢â¬Ëimprove' and Ã¢â¬Ësocialise' young people has continued to be a recurring theme throughout the 20th century within government policy. The Education Act of 1918 gave Local Education Authorities the power to spend money on the Ã¢â¬Ësocial training of young people' (Smith, 1988:34). Circular 1486, In the Service of Youth (Board of Education, 1939) which said that youth services should have Ã¢â¬Ëan equal status with other educational services' (Nicholls, 1997:8) talked of the disruption the '14-20 age group had suffered in its physical and social development' (Smith, 1988:34). Circular 1516, The Challenge of Youth said the aim of an LEA should be to Ã¢â¬Ëdevelop the whole personality of individual boys and girls to enable them to take their place as full members of a free community' (Nicholls, 1997:9) whilst Circular 1577 (Board of Education 1941) required young people to register with their LEA and Ã¢â¬Ëbe interviewed and advised as to how they might spend their leisure time' (Smith, 1988:35). In 1960 the Albermarle Report portrayed Ã¢â¬Ëthe main job of youth work as being to help young people to become Ã¢â¬Ëhealthy' adults' (Smith, 1988:49) although Mark Smith argues that the Ã¢â¬Ësecond element of Albemarles vision for the youth service (was) the containment and control of troublesome youth' (Smith, 1988:71). In 1966 the Home Office Children's Department began planning: Ã¢â¬ËCommunity Development Projects Ã¢â¬â to aid work preventing family breakdown and juvenile delinquency' (Nicholls, 1997:20) which effectively takes us back 100 years. Informal education since then has taken on many guises, from concern about dwindling numbers of young people attending provision, to a growing awareness that there are young people who do not attend at all, the Ã¢â¬Ëunattached' youth. However it is the continuing response to a problematic discourse that has characterised the series of moral panics about young people that has in the past and continues today to shape youth work. Conclusion Although a growing political awareness of the needs of young people who have been marginalised and excluded by society because of their race, gender, disability, sexuality and class etc., led to targeted work that was and is Ã¢â¬Ëissue based', youth work has, throughout the past 150 years, maintained its associational character (Smith, 2001). However, recent work has begun to concentrate more on the individual than the Ã¢â¬Ësocial groupwork' (Smith, 2002, www.infed.org/youthwork/transforming.htm) Smith says is fundamental to informal education. The linking of the youth service to the Connexions Strategy with its emphasis on surveillance, control and containment, coupled with an individual, case work emphasis will mean that: Ã¢â¬ËThe concern with conversation, experience and democracy normally associated with informal education is pushed to the background' (Smith, 2002, www.infed.org/youthwork/transforming.htm) Working to state led objectives and targets that are fed by a communitarianist ideology that focuses on the family mean that what informal educators do in the twenty-first century does not differ greatly from the work undertaken in the 19th and the assumption that adults have a right to intervene in the lives of young people, from a variety of hidden agendas and purposes continues unchallenged. In 1944 Paneth asked: Ã¢â¬ËHave we been intruders, disturbing an otherwise happy community, or is it only the bourgeois in us, coming face to face with his opponents, who minds and wants to change them because he feels threatened? Or do they need help from outside? (Paneth, 1944 in Smith, 1988:37).
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Before the main discussion of the reflective journal, the author would firstly like to identify that how the Ã¢â¬Å"organisational wellnessÃ¢â¬ subject affected her. In the beginning, the author chose this subject due to the reqirement that she must choose six units of third-year level to complete her degreee. And she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have any knowledge about this subject before she decided to choose it. When she attended the first lecture of Ã¢â¬Å"organisational wellnessÃ¢â¬ , she only has abstract and vague concept of the unit learning objectives. After the ten weeksÃ¢â¬â¢ learning, she has clearer and better understanding of herself and she has known some important concepts which should be considered when addressing the wellbeing problem in the workplace. On theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Cubby (2007) wrote that employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ suicide were related to the extreme work stress in Telstra. According to the news, Greg Winn, TelstraÃ¢â¬â¢s chief operations officer said th at Ã¢â¬Å"WE RUN an absolute dictatorship and thats whats going to drive this transformation and deliver results.Ã¢â¬ (Cubby, 2007) Furthermore, Greg Winn claim that the employees in Telstra must try any measures to persuade customers to accept the service that they offered. And Telstra were tracking employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ productivity. If the employees donÃ¢â¬â¢t operate and satisfy the superiorÃ¢â¬â¢s reqirement, they would be fired from Telstra. As such a workplace environment with extreme pressure to meet TelstraÃ¢â¬â¢s goal and get profit, some employees committed suicide. Hence, the organisation should not only focus on the economic goal, but also should know emloyeesÃ¢â¬â¢ view of health identities. If they just focus on the economic goal and ignore employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s health, the productivity of employees would lower than normal level or even worse. Also they may lead to negative effects on employees. In a word, the Ã¢â¬Å"Model of Working WelllÃ¢â¬ is important to the organisations and individuals. After I learned this topic, I realized that we should consider both perspectives of health ideologies. If the organisation or individual just consider their own benefit but ignore another partyÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, the wellness program would not efficient. Moreover, I consider I will applyShow MoreRelatedReflective Journal1701 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Topic 1: Meeting the customer requirements (Oakland 2003) is a reasonable definition of quality. Meeting the CustomerÃ¢â¬â¢s requirements is a tough challenge as the requirements of customer are like the water of a tide; itÃ¢â¬â¢s likely to change at any point of time. So identifying the expectations of the customer and performing service in accordance to it is a task that requires great skill. But at the end of the day if customerÃ¢â¬â¢s expectation is met and the customer is satisfied with the product, weRead MoreReflective Journal on Negotiation1192 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesReflective Journal on negotiation Part 1 In the past four weeks, my study group members and me had took part in three negotiation simulations. The first one is that we are Newcastle local car dealer and want to sell used car to Japanese international student ( other group ).In this negotiation simulation, we keep our price first, let other group know the market price of this kind of car and let them give the price in their mind, then base on this price we give a 25% higher price with 1 year volunteerRead MoreA Reflection Of A Reflective Journal1593 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA Ã¢â¬Ëreflective journalÃ¢â¬â¢ which is a document written by a student to record the progress of learning. It is a personal record of the student s learning experiences and is a space where a learner can record and reflect upon their observations and responses to situations, which can be used to explore and analyse ways of thinking. The aim of this particular journal is to show thoughts, reflections and experience recorded during the Postgraduate Diploma in Business Enterprise (PGDipBE) which I followedRead MoreReflective Journal Sample1190 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesMinh Nguyen Journal 4 ELC 689 February, 8th 2010 What I have learned for the first four weeks of the course has prompted me to initiate new policies in testing administration together with training workshops for teachers in my division. The aims are to work toward better quality test practice: using tests for reflection on studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ progress rather than failing or passing students and improving the present test giving practice in weak areas such as validity, reliability, wash back. My reflectionRead MoreExample of Reflective Journal757 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesExamples of reflective writing Example of reading log Here are some examples of reflective writing in Education, focusing on school experience rounds. EDF1302 Assessment 2: Observation and analysis While on fieldwork, I observed a number of learning situations and while doing this I took notes on the presence of pedagogical dimensions. For this piece I will be exploring the dimensions of Intellectual Quality and Supportive Classroom Environment respectively. I will begin with the descriptionRead MoreBlumhardt.Session1. Journal. 1. Session1 Journal Reflective724 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesBlumhardt.Session1. Journal 1 Session1 Journal Reflective Paper Writing Assessment Nakeesha Blumhardt Colorado Christian University Blumhardt.Session1. Journal Session1 Journal Reflective Paper Writing Assessment 2 While attending Colorado Christian University, also known as CCU to most scholars and staff alike my academic goal is to finish my degree program from the beginning to the end. I plan to dedicate myself to not only finishing my degree here with CCU but also using the invaluable knowledgeRead MoreReflective Journal On The Aspects Of Leadership Essay1543 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesReflective Journal on the Aspects of Leadership This reflective journal will focus on authentic leadership and its role in establishing an empowering work environment. I had realized there were patient safety concerns at the moment of handoff for many years. Once I took on a leadership role it became even more evident that nurse to nurse handoff is a critical point where errors can happen. As part of my daily routine, I round to get a feel for the department, staff, and patients. I began to noticeRead MoreEthics Game Reflective Journal1042 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesEthics Game Reflective Journal HCS/478 Health Law and Ethics April 16, 2012 Judy Ceppaglia Ethics Game Reflective Journal Ethical dilemmas surface daily in professional nursing practice. Whether you work in acute care, long-term care, hospice care, ambulatory care, managed care, or public health care chances are you will be responsible for making decisions in a situation of ethical concern. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the ethical issues presented in the Ethics Game simulationRead MoreReflective Journal : Workshop 1 Essay1284 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Reflective Journal: Workshop 1 As an educator, it is vital for one to reflect upon what it means to be an effective teacher, in addition to reflecting upon oneÃ¢â¬â¢s instructional strengths and weaknesses. There are many facets that contribute to the definition of an effective teacher. In order to be an effective teacher, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important to consciously focus on those facets in order to ensure oneÃ¢â¬â¢s success as well as the success of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s students. We live in a diverse world, and it is importantRead MoreReflective Journal Hrm Strategy3602 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesHRM Reflective Journal on seminars covered between week 5, 6, 8 and 10 7011EHR HRM Strategy Lecturer: Dr Maree Boyle StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Name: StudentÃ¢â¬â¢s Number: Date of submission: 08. October 2012 Table of content 1. Reflective Journal for week 5: Changing role of HRM in the 21 century 2 1.1. Explain 2 1.2. Expand 2 1.3. Critical Reflection/Analysis 3 2. Reflective Journal for week 6: SHRM in an international context 4 2.1. Explain 5 2.2. Expand 5 2.1. Critical
Friday, December 27, 2019
BOOK SUMMARY The Case for Christ Lee Strobel. Pub. Zondervan Publishing House About the Author Lee Strobel, Master of Studies in Law from Yale Law School. Award-winning journalist investigative reporter for 13 yrs. at the Chicago Tribune. Pg. 303. His life changes when his wife becomes a Christian. He fears he will lose the fun-loving companion and friend he has known for years, but instead he is surprised by subtle changes in her character. This not only intrigues him but prompts him to learn more about Jesus by using the same logical and factual approach he follows while working as an investigative crime reporter. He starts his learning quest as an unconvinced skeptic. His underlying question is, Ã¢â¬Å"Can a case for ChristÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦51 Corroborating evidence outside the Bible Josephus, Jewish historian, A.D. 37-100 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wrote about Jewish wars that have corroborated by other historians and archaeological excavations. Pg. 81 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Writes about James, brother of Jesus, who was called the Christ. Stoned to death in A.D. 62. Pg.78 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Wrote about Jesus the tribe of his Christian followers that had still to this day not disappeared. Pg. 79 Tacitus, a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire, A.D. 56 Ã¢â¬â117 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Writes about Christ suffering extreme penalty during the reign of Tiberius at the hands of Pontius Pilatus. Refers to an immense multitude of Christ followers willing to die for their beliefs. Pg. 82 Pliny the Younger, Roman citizen, and provincial governor, A.D. 23-79 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Refers to rapid spread of Christianity among all classes of people, as well as Roman citizens that are sent to Rome for trial. Ã¢â¬Å"They have high ethical standards and if they repeatedly admit they honor Christ as God they are executedÃ¢â¬ . Thallus, a Greek historian, wrote in A.D. 52 a history of the Mediterranean world since the Trojan War. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Referenced the total darkness at the time of the crucifixion. Pg. 84 Phlegon, a Greek author in A.D. 137 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reported about the greatest eclipse of the sun when it became night at noon in A.D.33. Pg. 85 The Mishnah, the 1st part of the Talmud, an important Jewish work compiled in A.D. 200 regarding Judaisms Oral Law Ã¢â¬ ¢ Refers to Jesus as a false messiah whoShow MoreRelatedThe Case For Christ By Lee Strobel1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIntroduction Award-winning journalist, Lee Strobel wrote The Case for Christ to retrace and expand his journey toward becoming a Christian. Strobel once declared atheist, and now Christian, shares how he began to look upon the Bible and God. As an atheist, Strobel lived the life of selfishness and only worried to please himself. When his wife began to go to church he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t very pleased until after he saw the positive and attractive change in her. This is the start of his curiosity and investigationRead MoreThe Case For Christ By Lee Strobel1411 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAward-winning journalist, Lee Strobel wrote The Case for Christ to retrace and enlarge his journey toward becoming a Christian. Strobel once atheist, and now Christian, shares how he began to look upon the Bible and God. As an atheist, Strobel lived the life of selfishness and only worried to please himself. When his wife began to go to church he wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t very pleased until after he saw the positive and attractive change in her. This is the start of his curiosity and investigation about ChristianityRead MoreThe Case For Christ By Lee Strobel And Jane Vogel977 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSummary The Case for Christ was written by Lee Strobel and Jane Vogel. The book is almost like a really big essay with a bunch of different sections, each one proving or disproving a certain point. The book focuses on disproving the existence of Jesus Christ but in the process of disproving the existence of Jesus he proves just how real Jesus is. I personally chose this book because I am a Christian and it looked interesting to see why other people who don t already believe start to believeRead MoreThe Church : A Diverse Body Of Persons Professing The Christian Faith1304 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesare those that understand and witness the birth and death of Jesus Christ. This conveys that they believe Jesus Christ to be the begotten son of God, the creator of this world. Ã¢â¬Å"ChurchÃ¢â¬ is a term that is used to identify Christians that exist in different parts of the world. (Irenaeus) They are also called Ã¢â¬Å"the body of Christ,Ã¢â¬ or the Ã¢â¬Å"ecclesia.Ã¢â¬ This suggests th at the people who form the Church are persons of the body of Christ as mentioned in 1 Corinthians 12:27 and Romans 12:5. The paper willRead MoreBible Studies: Analysis of Pauls Prison Epistle Books794 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesputting into practice the principle of Christianity. He also wrote the books to act as in exposition of the nature of universal church, and the body of Christ. For this case, various names were given to the church by Paul in relation to the prison epistles. The church was defined as the body of Christ, meaning that all those who believed in Christ were to be the part of the church and be considered a significant part of the church. The church was also described as the temple of God, which signifiesRead MoreEssay about Journal Critique730 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesWork of Christ: A Case for Substitutionary Atonement.Ã¢â¬ Anglican Theological Review 95.1 (Winter 2013): 9-24. THEO 510 LUO (Summer 2013) Survey of Theology Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary Joshua M. Peoples (ID# 22750743) May 26, 2013 A Journal Critique of Ã¢â¬Å"The Forgiveness of Sins and the Work of Christ: A Case for Substitutionary Atonement.Ã¢â¬ In his article, Ã¢â¬Å"The Forgiveness of Sins and the Work of Christ: A Case for SubstitutionaryRead MoreThe Dream of the Rood: An Outstanding Archetype of Christian Influence on Anglo-Saxon Heroism1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesinfluence upon Anglo-Saxon heroism. It is a religious short story that recounts the crucifixion of Christ communicated from ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s rood to an unnamed visionary. The crucifixion of Christ is depicted as the ultimate act of heroism. However, it is via Anglo-Saxon tradition that Christian ideology manages to influence the definition and imagery of Anglo-Saxon heroism. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Dream of the RoodÃ¢â¬ Christ is an Anglo-Saxon hero. An Anglo-Saxon hero is valiant, strong or mighty and not frightened when inRead MoreJournal Article Critique : The Man Jesus Christ Essay1204 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesDIVINITY Journal Article Critique: The Man Jesus Christ Submitted to Dr. Michael Chiavone, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the completion of THEO 510-D01 Survey of Theology by Todd Bush November 21, 2016 Contents Introduction 2 Summary 2 Critical Interaction 3 Conclusion 4 Bibliography 5 Introduction The following paper yields a couple of various speculations and theories in regards to the teaching of Christ s humanity and how it could influence how weRead MoreTurning Points in the Saga of Race in America 842 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesTurning points in the saga of Race in America The Color of Christ is a book that evokes memories of the exhausted images and lives of Jesus which preponderantly contributes to Ã¢â¬Å"the saga of race in America.Ã¢â¬ (5) The book modifies and wisely propagates the stereotypical images of Jesus throughout the history of the U.S, which offers the most striking responses. In the book, Blum and Harvey portray the world as a place that is filled with various images about Jesus. The book, in its entirety, hasRead MoreBiblical Leadership : The Foundation842 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesChristianity in his book, The Church of Christ. The design for the church is found in the pattern laid out in Scripture. Wharton says, The pattern principle means no more than going to the Bible to discover what God wants His people to believe, to be and do until Jesus returnsÃ¢â¬ ¦it embraces the work of the church and the organizational structure for both the universal church and the local congregationsÃ¢â¬ ¦The New Testament pattern principle insures the identity of the body of Christ as God purposed it from eternity